Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRDES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Dermatological Science’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science en-US Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science Retinoids in the Management of Acne with Depressive Symptoms: A Treatment Conundrum <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Isotretinoin (ITT) a first‑generation synthetic retinoid derived from Vitamin A for the treatment of Acne Vulgaris (AV). It effectively treats acne by acting on the pathogenetic mechanisms like comedolytic effect, anti‑inflammatory effect, sebostatic effect and the inhibitory effect on proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. The first occurrence of depressive symptoms associated with isotretinoin was seen in 1983 and since then a lot of controversies have emerged regarding the causal relationship between isotretinoin and depression.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>All patients presenting to the Dermatology Out Patient Department in a Rural Private Hospital in South India with diagnosed Grade III-IV acne non-responsive to Oral Tetracyclines and Topical Clindamycin were taken to be part of the study after obtaining adequate consent. Each patient filled a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) before the commencement of treatment. Patients with mild depression secondary to acne were considered. They were started on Oral Isotretinoin 10 mg and Topical Adapalene 0.1% for 16 weeks. The same scale was given at the end of 16 weeks for data completion.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean DLQI score before the commencement of treatment was 13.34 and it came down to 6.94 at the end of 16 weeks, an improvement of 47.87%. The mean HDRS score before the commencement of treatment was 18.10 and it went up to 19.32 at the end of 16 weeks, a deterioration of 6.74%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the collected data, it can be said that although Retinoids significantly help in the management of severe Acne, they can possibly have a negative effect on the mood of the individual and worsen the symptoms of Depression slightly. A sort of double-edged sword, it can be left to the Dermatologist to alter the dosage of the Retinoids used and also have proper Psychiatric consultations including Psychotherapy for the patient to achieve success in treatment.</p> S. J. Swetha M. Preethi J. Sharanya Saai Ram Thejas M. Karthik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 15 22 The Profile of Patients with Dermatomyositis in Dakar: A Series of 56 Cases <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of patients with dermatomyositis in the dermatology department of the Aristide Le Dantec hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> It was a prospective and descriptive study analyzing all the files of patients with dermatomyositis followed at Le Dantec’s dermatology department between January 2009 and December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> We collected 56 cases of dermatomyositis, i.e. a hospital frequency of 1.64%. The average age of the patients was 44 years with 2 cases of juvenile dermatomyositis (9 and 15 years). Pruritus was reported in 13 patients. Cancer was associated with dermatomyositis in 11 cases, including 7 cases of gynecological cancer and 4 cases of ENT cancer. Dermatological manifestations were found in 100% of cases with a predominance of periorbital erythroedema in 66.07%. Muscular manifestations were noted in 96.42%, articular manifestations in 32.14%, pleuropulmonary manifestations in 23.21% and cardiac involvment in 3.57%. All patients received treatment with oral corticosteroids, combined in 5.35% with methotrexate. The outcome was successful in 33.9% and death was noted in 11 patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Dermatomyositis (DM) tends to affect young adults more, with a high frequency of forms associated with cancer, and deaths.</p> M. Ndiaye N. Ndour S. Diadie I. Berrada M. T. Ndiaye M. Sarr C. Ndiaye B. A. Diatta A. Deh K. Diop N. Ndour A. Diop M. Diallo F. Ly S. O. Niang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 23 29 Fibrosing Folliculitis of the Neck (FFN) and Associated Factors: A Prospective Study of 37 Cases <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The objective of this study was to describe FFN and associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Prospective study conducted in the dermatology department of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital, identifying all cases of FFN and associated factors. The diagnosis of FFN was clinical.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We collected 37 patients with FFN, all phototype VI and male. The average age of our patients was 34.45 years (19 to 55 years).&nbsp; Pruritus was noted in 17 cases and pain in 6 cases. The average duration of evolution was 6 years with extremes from 1 year to 10 years. Family history of FFN was noted in 3 cases. The type of shaving was clippers in 35 cases (94.6%) and razor blades in 2 cases. Patients shaved one to five times per month (48.65%), with an average of three shaves. The clinical lesional aspects were dominated by papules in 37 cases and nodules in 32 cases. A high frequency of diabetes and obesity were found to be associated with FFN. Diabetes was noted in 10 cases and three patients had a lipid imbalance. A statistically significant association between the use of comb and the presence of nodule (P &lt; 0.001) was found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> FFN is not rare in dark skin male. A high frequency of diabetes and obesity was noted. A high frequency of diabetes and obesity were found to be associated with FFN.</p> M. Ndiaye S. Diadie P. Dioussé H. Gouriah M. Sarr C. Ndiaye B. A. Diatta A. Deh K. Diop N. Ndour M. Diallo S. O. Niang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-22 2021-11-22 30 35 White Tongue as a Manifestation of Diverse Skin Diseases <p><strong>Background: </strong>The mouth, along with tongue, represent a site for important dermatologic disorders and could be the earliest involved site in many systemic conditions.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To delineate and evaluate the possible etiologies in patients presenting with white tongue, early or during the course of their predisposed diseases and providing a path for dealing with this condition.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>In this observational descriptive study that was carried out during the period from 2013 to 2021, twenty three patients with white tongue were included. Full history and clinical, systemic and cutaneous, examination were performed aiming to delineate the specific diagnosis. Additional general investigations and skin biopsy were done when it was needed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twenty three patients, 13 (56.5%) males and 10 (43.5%) females, suffering from white tongue were enrolled in the present study.&nbsp; Their age at presentation was ranged from 16-50 years with mean 37.4±9 years. Symptomatic white tongue was the presenting complaint in 19 (82.6%) patients and the symptoms ranged from mild oral discomfort to sever oral burning and soreness that interferes with oral functions. This study highlighted that lichen planus was the major disease predisposed to the white tongue in (56.52%) of patients followed by Behcets disease (13.04%), psoriasis (8.7%), oral candidiasis (8.7%), acrodermatitis enteropathica (8.7%) and pemphigus in (4.34%) cases. Associated cutaneous lesions were found in 78.3% of patients where in many of them, the rash was mild and discovered accidently on routine examination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>White tongue is not uncommon complaint with possible important and serious underlying causes. The current study showed&nbsp; that lichen planus , Behcets disease ,psoriasis, oral candidiasis, acrodermatitis enteropathica and pemphigus can manifested as white tongue either initially and/or during the course of the disease. Hence, dermatologists and oral physicians should be aware for this distinguished clinical observation.</p> Khalifa Sharquie Faris O. Hadi Raed I. Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 36 43 The Frequency of Congenital and Acquired Alopecia among Infants and Children <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hair loss in children is commonly encountered complaint in the dermatology clinics. It can be physiological or pathological, and, in the latter, congenital or acquired.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To shed light on the different causes of hair loss in infants and children with ages that ranged from 0-12 years in Baghdad city.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>This is a hospital-based observational cross-sectional study performed at the Center of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City, Iraq during the period from January 2016 to the end of October 2017. One hundred twenty nine patients with ages of not more than 12 years complaining of hair loss were included in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 71 (55%) males and 58 (45%) females presenting with hair loss. Acquired alopecia was recognized in 112 (86.8%) patients while 17 (13.2%) patients had been presented with congenital/hereditary alopecia. Alopecia areata was the most frequent cause, affecting 47 (36.4%) patients followed by tinea capitis 39 (30.2%), telogen effluvium of newborn 11(8.5%), traction alopecia 7(5.4%), posttraumatic alopecia 5(3.9%) and trichotillomania 3(2.3%). While the congenital/hereditary alopecia was consisting of hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in 4(3.1%), hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in 3 (2.3%), monilethrix 3(2.3%), nevus sebaceous 5 (3.9%) and epidermal nevi 2 (1.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hair loss in infants and children encompassed both congenital (13.2%) and acquired disorders (86.8%). The commonest causes of childhood alopecia in Baghdad community were mainly acquired with alopecia areata was the most frequent cause followed by tinea capitis and telogen effluvium of newborn while the congenital/hereditary types are also important causes of hair loss.</p> Khalifa E. Sharquie Sarmad A. Alhashimi Faris O. Hadi Raed I. Jabbar Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 44 54 All Variants of Lichen Planus are a Possible Triggering Factors for Squamous Cell Carcinoma <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lichen planus is a common dermatological disorder where oral lichen planus is the most commonly incriminated to have the possible risk to change into squamous cell carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To realize squamous cell carcinoma as a possible complication of all variants of lichen planus and to raise dermatologists̛ awareness about this complication.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>All patients with lichen planus who developed squamous cell carcinoma during the period from July 2012 –July 2021 were collected and included in this case series descriptive observational study. Full history and clinical, systemic and cutaneous, examinations were performed .Lymph nodes were inspected and palpated and biopsy was carried out to confirm the diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The data of eight patients were evaluated with 5 (62.5%) males and 3 (37.5%) females, and their ages at presentation were ranged from 45-71 years with mean 58.3±8.3 years. All patients were suffering from squamous cell carcinoma complicating previously diagnosed lichen planus during nine years time period. The variants of lichen planus that observed in the present study were as follow: 3 (37.5%) classic lichen planus, 2 (25%) oral lichen planus, 2 (25%) lichen planus actinicus and one(12.5%) with hypertrophic lichen planus. Also this study revealed that the sites of squamous cell carcinoma were observed in oral in 5 (62.5%) patients ,nose in 1 (12.5%)patient, penis in 1(12.5%) patient, and dorsal foot in1 (12.5%) patient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Squamous cell carcinoma as a complication of lichen planus in its mucosal and cutaneous variant is a rare and non-documented issue but according to daily clinical practice, it can present and can complicate all variants of lichen planus on contrary to previous reports where the main site was oral cavity. This observation should be kept in mind while evaluating longstanding non-healed or poorly responding lesions of all varieties of lichen planus.</p> Khalifa E. Sharquie Faris O. Hadi Raed I. Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-29 2021-12-29 55 62 Association between Piscine Mycobacteriosis and Morgellons Disease: Literature Review <p>Piscine Mycobacteriosis (PM) or sometimes called fish tuberculosis, is a deadly zoonotic disease found in both fresh and marine fish throughout the world. More than 20 strains of <em>Mycobacterium spp. </em>are known to cause PM, but their pathogenesis is currently unclear. This is a chronic progressive disease with a variety of clinical symptoms including skin ulcerations, loss of color, scoliosis, and weight loss. Advanced technical molecular methods have now allowed us to different <em>Mycobacterium </em>to the individual species level. Out of the 20 known strains, <em>M. marinum </em>is the commonest and the most pathogenic organism and it is found in marine and freshwater fish. Morgellons Disease (MD) is a multi-system disorder where patients commonly present with multiple, non-healing, cutaneous wounds. Patients report seeing multi-colored filaments/fibers under the skin and often provide samples to the clinician. However, most clinicians thought this is a delusional disorder and treated the patients with antidepressant drugs. However, recent studies have linked MD with systemic manifestations of Lyme Disease (LD). Other studies have found correlation between MD and tick-borne co-infections. Despite these studies, the definite causative agent of MD has not yet been confirmed. Since the clinical symptoms of PM and MD are somewhat similar, it could be hypothesized that PM and MD could be related to each other. Therefore, the objective of this literature review is to find any link between PM and MD based on the current literature available. However, it should be noted that there is no study done specifically looking into this hypothesis. The primary search engine used to find information for this review is PubMed and ScienceDirect. More than 30 research articles and case reports were reviewed and only 19 were shortlisted and used as references. None of the studies were limited to study design, number of participants or the study year. However, only articles written in English language were considered for this review.</p> B. Dolapihilla M. Elapatha J. Grimm ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 1 8 Morgellons as a Somatopsychic Disorder with Organic Etiology <p>Morgellons Disease (MD) is a multi-system disorder with a primary symptom characterized by the emergence of tiny, multicolored fibers from the skin. A study conducted in Northern California led the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to not recognize MD as a separate diagnosis. The study involved 115 patients with MD-like symptoms. The researchers conducted interviews, analyzed patients’ blood and urine, and studied skin biopsies, but they failed to find a correlation between MD and any infectious or environmental cause. The study concluded that MD was more like a delusional disorder.</p> <p>The purpose of this review is to evaluate the said study and describe the limitations and biases therein. This includes lack of a comparison group, sampling bias and problems in analyzing the results. The review will also highlight why MD should be considered a separate multisystem condition with an underlying pathology based on evidence from more recent studies.</p> Jase Grimm Buddhini Dolapihilla G. E. D. M. Elapatha Udula Vidanage ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 9 14