Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Natural Antioxidant Emulgels Loaded with Annona squamosa L. Extract with and without Penetration Enhancer

Sidra Meer, Saira Aslam, Muhammad S. A. Abbasi, Muhammad Aslam Tahir

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 1-10

Highly sustainable emulgels loaded with Annona squamosa L. extract with and without penetration enhancer were formulated. Characterization evaluations of prepared emulgels formulations were done at various storage conditions. Acetone (70%) was used to prepare Annona squamosa L. extract by using maceration technique. Emulgels were prepared by using 4% extract with and without penetration enhancer (clove oil 8%). Varying concentrations of carbapol 940 (0.5-2%) were used in the development of emulgels. All the formulations were kept first at 25°C and then stressed at 40°C to sort out the most stable formulation. The in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation was done including pH, conductivity, phase separation, and mean droplet size. These parameters were monitoring over a period of 90 days at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75 % RH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Data of Patients with Wounds Attending Government Hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria

A. K. Onifade, O. G. Palmer

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 11-19

Clinical data of patients with wounds attending government hospitals in Ondo state, Nigeria was investigated. It was observed that most patients with wound that visited government hospitals in Ondo state were 45-54 years age group with percentage of 41.0%. The most gender that visits government hospitals for the treatment of wound was male in the course of the research with the percentage of 59.3%. In the course of the study 31.0% of the respondents that participate in the survey were single while 69% were married. Self-employed had the highest percentage distribution of 27.8% while driver had the lowest percentage of 4.8%. Most of the respondents reside in Akure while Ilara had the lowest respondent patients with wounds that visited hospitals in the course of the study. Four-point-five percent (4.5%) of the patients with wounds were diagnosed with diabetes and 4.0 percent of the respondents were on diabetes drug. Eighteen-point-three percent (18.3%) of the patients with wounds take alcohol. Patients with wounds that take alcohol regularly were 16.3% while 2.0% take alcohol occasionally. In the course of the survey at government hospitals in Ondo State, 9.3% of the respondent smoke cigarette. Two-point-five percent (2.5%) smoke regularly while 6.8% smoke occasionally. Thirty-six-point five percent (36.5%) of the patients with wounds were on traditional herb. Patients with wounds that take traditional herb were 16.8%, 19.8% takes traditional herb occasionally, while 63.5% of the respondent did not take at all. None of the patient was diagnosed with obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nuclear Factor- kappa B (NF-ҡB) Activation Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with the Risk of Psoriasis in Chinese Han People of Wuhan, Hubei Province

Malumani Malan, Wu Xuejingzi, Song Ji Quan

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 46-55

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic, life-long inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the skin. The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis remains elusive. The activation of the NF-ҡB/Rel transcription family, by nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic complexes, plays a critical role in inflammation through its ability to induce transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. This pathway is activated upon appropriate cellular stimulation, most often by signals related to pathogens or stress.

Objective: To study TRAF3IP2 (rs33980500), TNFAIP3 (rs610604) and NFKBIA (rs12586317) gene activation single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with risk of psoriasis in Chinese Han population of Wuhan city, Hubei Province.

Materials and Methods: The genetic analysis included samples from 44 patients and 50 controls was analyzed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP System) using Applied Biosystems Gene Mapper 4.0.

Results: The average age of clients was 47 years with an age range of 9–86 years and an average age of onset of 37 years. 38 were male (86.36%) and 6 (13.64%) were female, of which six patients (13.64%) had a family history of psoriasis. The psoriasis area severity index (PASI) was about 10.7 (range 3.5-24), this scale evaluates the severity of three clinical signs (erythema, induration and desquamation) on a scale from 0 to 4 (from none to maximum). However, our research on the Chinese community yielded lack of association for the SNP rs12586317, rs33980500, and rs610604 with P-values of 0.9177, 0.3482, and 0.2009, respectively.

Conclusion: Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1A (rs12586317), TRAF3IP2 (rs33980500) and TNFAIP3 (rs610604) were not associated with the susceptibility of psoriasis vulgaris in Chinese Han patients of Wuhan, Hubei province. However, the authors recommend a larger scale study.NF-kB is a key regulatory element in a variety of immune and inflammatory pathways, in cellular proliferation and differentiation and in apoptosis, thus, orchestrates inflammation and other complex biological processes in cells. Drugs that act on NF-kB will be key in the treatment of most chronic dermatoses.

Open Access Review Article

Formulation Based Technology Advancements in Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Sidra Meer, Muhammad Aslam Tahir, Muhammad S. A. Abbasi

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 20-33

Transdermal drug delivery is the safest and convenient delivery system for numerous drugs. Different types of transdermal patches are used for specific targeted drug delivery. Conventional transdermal patches have disadvantage that drugs with larger molecular size have difficulty in absorption. Stratum corneum is the primary barrier layer for many drugs permeation. Several methods are employed for the penetration enhancement and successful penetration of many drugs has been observed. The objective of this article is to explore the potential of different formulation based technology advances in this respect. The drug delivery systems are divided into vesicular and non vesicular drug systems like liposomes, hydrogels, dendrimers etc. and then further their individual role in transdermal drug delivery is discussed. These systems act as carrier for both low as well as high molecular weight drugs, thus resulting in improved stability, solubility and effective delivery of drug molecules. This review articles covers the individual role of these delivery systems along with some examples of drugs.

Open Access Review Article

A Looking Beyond the Cutaneous Manifestations of Covid 19- Part 1: The Clinical Spectrum - A Review

A. S. V. Prasad

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 34-45

Ever since the first case of Covid 19 pneumonia-like condition was reported from Wuhan, China, researchers were seriously engaged in uncovering evidence of the involvement of organs other than the lung, like kidney, heart, brain, liver and gut. From the dermatologists, world over, specifically from UK, USA, France and Italy etc., reports of Cutaneous involvement in Covid 19 started to pour in, since April - May of 2020. From the localised and benign cutaneous lesions-like Covid toes to moderately severe exanthematous rashes like the morabilliform and vesicular rashes, to more severe, livedoid /necrotic and haemorrhagic rashes were reported. The last group in particular, was associated with underlying potentially fatal pathological conditions like hypercoagulable state and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).These types of cutaneous lesions could be clinically the fore-runner of the underlying pathological states and indicate grave prognosis. Such cases need intensive care management, not because of the skin lesions but for the fatal underlying processes which cause them. In many instances of less severe to moderately severe manifestations as mentioned above, the link to Covid 19, is more circumstantial than direct, as most of them are negative for SARS CoV 2 virus. The one reason for attributing some of these lesions to Covid 19, was due to the fact that they were observed at the height of the Covid 19 epidemic in the countries concerned. Even some researchers expressed doubt, that some of the exanthematous lesions of Covid 19 could be due to an independent seasonal virus or due to the coexistence of another concurrent viral disease. The latest report of the coexistent CMV viral infection in Covid 19 patient in April 2020 (Damiano D’Ardes, Andrea Boccatonda, et al.) would support the possibility simultaneous of dual infection. Yet another view was that it could be a delayed manifestation or an epiphenomena of Covid 19. Dengue-like and Kawasaki disease- like lesions were cited as examples of how Covid 19 could mimic other potentially serious diseases. Understandably, all the cutaneous lesions could not be considered on the same footing and hence the necessity to eschew any cavalier approach to any dermatological manifestation that turns up in the context of Covid 19 infection. An attempt was made to review and present the clinical spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of Covid 19, reported till date in the literature, in this part of the article. It was planned to discuss the pathology and pathogenesis of the cutaneous manifestations of Covid 19 in part 2, that would follow.