Open Access Original Research Article

Infectious Skin Disorders Encountered in Children Attending the Dermatology Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern Nigeria

Bolaji Otike-Odibi, Uju S. Azubogu

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 1-6

Aims: To determine the prevalence and types of ISDs seen among children attending the Dermatology clinic in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Study Design: A retrospective study design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The Dermatology clinic in UPTH over a three (3) year period (January 2016 –December 2018).

Methodology: Relevant data were extracted from the medical files of all the children who attended the dermatology clinic within the period under review using a data collection proforma. These included age, gender, history of skin diseases and type of skin disease diagnosed. Diagnosis of skin diseases in the clinic were made by trained dermatologists. The diagnosis were mainly clinical but laboratory confirmation was done where necessary.

Results: A total of 486 children aged 1 month to 17 years were seen in the Dermatology clinic over the 3 year period. ISDs were diagnosed in 212 (43.6%) of these children. The mean age of children with ISDs was 7.49±5.8 years with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Fungal skin infections were seen in 95 (44.8%) patients. Parasitic skin infections were diagnosed in 62 (29.2%) patients. Viral and Bacterial skin infections were observed in 33 (15.6%) and 22 (10.4%) children respectively. With respect to specific diagnosis, the most frequent ISDs were: Scabies in 62 (29.2%), Tinea corporis in 24 (11.3%), Verruca Vulgaris in 24 (11.3%) and Impetigo in 9 (4.2%). Age and gender were not associated with occurrence of ISDs.

Conclusion: The prevalence of Infectious Skin Disorders is high among children attending the Dermatology clinic in UPTH with Scabies being the most common ISD. Greater efforts should be geared towards the prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of these ISDs to limit the morbidity associated with them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trichoscopy of Alopecia Areata: Analysis of 215 Cases

Emina Kasumagic-Halilovic

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 21-25

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is i a common form of localized, nonscarring hair loss. It is characterized by loss of hair in patches, total loss of scalp hair (alopecia totalis), or total loss of scalp and body hair (alopecia universalis). The etiology of the disease is still unknown, although the evidence suggests that AA is an immunologically mediated disease.

Trichoscopy represents the dermoscopy imaging of the scalp and hair. Structures which may be visualized by trichoscopy include hair shafts, hair follicle openings, perifollicular epidermis and cutaneous microvessels. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the trichoscopic features of alopecia areata.

Methods: A total of 215 patients with clinically diagnosed AA were enrolled in this study. Data on age, gender, personal and family history, clinical pattern and duration of disease were collected and analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed using either videodermatoscope or handheld dermatoscope.

Results: The most common trichoscopic findings of alopecia areata were yellow dots seen in 169 (78.60%) patients, followed by black dots in 115 (53.49%) cases, exclamation mark hairs in 107 (49.77%) cases and tapered hairs in 99 (46.05%) patients. Short vellus hairs were observed in 91 (42.32%) patients. Trichoscopic results of AA were similar in all clinical types of the disease.

Conclusions: Our study has shown the significances of trichoscopy of patients with AA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Skin Complications from Soap and Cream Use among Elderly Persons in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Otike-Odibi Bolaji, Amadi Ekechi, Pepple Erinma Fortune, Bell- Gam Hope Ilanye

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 26-32

Background: The components of skin care products (soaps and creams) are left on the skin for extended periods of time. It has however been observed in most of the dermatology clinics in our environment that the frequent use of toilet or medicated germicidal soaps on diseased skin increases the inflammation and irritation of the skin

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 126 elderly respondents who presented at different wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A PROFORMA data collection sheet was used to collate demographic information, dermatological complications, and the use of soaps and creams from the participants.

Results: Xerosis was the most common skin complication (54.64%), followed by itching (27.84%) and post bleaching-syndrome (17.53%).The most commonly used was moisturizing cream (32.8%) followed by bleaching cream (16.0%). However, 49 (39.2%) of the participants indicated they did not use any specific cream and 15 (12.0%) indicated that they did not use any cream. The distribution of types of cream and gender was not statistically significant (p = 0.439). The distribution of bathing soap used by the participants showed that the most common bathing soap was moisturizing/toilet soap (54.4%), followed by the use of no specific soap (25.6%) and medicated/bleaching soap (19.2%). The distribution of postbleaching syndrome was significantly associated with a relatively high use of bleaching/ medicated soaps by 47.1% of the persons with post-bleaching syndrome. (p = 0.024). The distribution of postbleaching syndrome and gender was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.042), with the post-bleaching syndrome been more common among female participants (64.7%).

Conclusion: The was a considerable occurrence of post bleaching syndrome among the participants. In a bid to improve skin care among the elderly, it is important that the geriatric population are educated on the appropriate applications of skin care products for an improved quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dermatologic Manifestations in Senior Citizens at University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Otike-Odibi Bolaji, Amadi Ekechi, Pepple Erinma Fortune, Bell- Gam Hope Ilanye

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 33-43

Background: Elderly people are vulnerable to a wide variety of dermatologic conditions as a result of degenerative and metabolic changes which occur throughout the skin layers as part of the aging process.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive assessment of dermatological complications among 126 elderly respondents who presented at different wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) was carried out.

Results: The results showed a Male to Female ratio of 1.3:1 with 73 (57.9%) males and 53 (42.1%) females. The was a 51.4% prevalence of dermatological complications among the participants.Statistical analysis showed a significant association of the occurrence of dermatological lesions with tattoos, photosensitivity and post-bleaching syndrome among female subjects only (p <0.05). Similarly, Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) among individuals with 4 -5 chronic illnesses.

Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that xerosis is highly prevalent in the elderly in UPTH. Infections are a major cause of dermatoses in the elderly and accurate diagnosis of these dermatoses, especially in the presence of multiple comorbidities and different drug regimens, will help in appropriate drug selection and improved quality of life of  these patients.

Open Access Review Article

Biological and Social Challenges of the Aging Skin in Older Africans

Amadi Ekechi Stella

Asian Journal of Research in Dermatological Science, Page 7-20

Despite the overall increase of the population of older adults in Africa, these senior citizens still have a lot of challenges regarding their health including skin disorders. The health seeking efforts as regards to skin disorders is relatively lower when compared to other common old age diseases despite serious effects on the quality of life. The burden of the aging skin can have both biological and social consequences on the older African. This is further worsened in some by socio-cultural skin practices such as scarification, skin lightening, tanning and tattooing which may have been done at an earlier age or still occurring due to perceived benefits. The COVID-19 pandemic has also left its burden on the older African with the reports of increased skin disorders among the senior citizens. This review aims to highlight the biological and social impact of skin disorders on the older African with a reflection on the anatomy of the aging skin, common skin disorders, management and basic preventive measures.